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项目期间换了新成员怎么办??

82 2024-01-13
“跨过了一座山,又跨过了一条河”。项目团队好不容易可以开始麻溜地打怪升级,项目经理终于可以松一口气的时候。
此时职能部经理悄悄地走了过来……
“我们组最近接到老板的最新紧急任务,我不得不把小王要回来。大老板看见这个项目目前进展不错,综合考虑利弊后,打算派个经验丰富的小李过来替换小王……”
此时的项目经理听到前面两句话后就“蒙”了。假如你是这位项目经理,你要拒绝这个请求,你要怎么做?或者你要因为项目成员的变动,而要求调整schedule,你又要怎么做?……
对于弱矩阵的企业,虽然PM此时会在心中数着一群又一群xx马,大吼:“不要动我的人!!!”但是只能通过专业知识来尽可能说服stakeholder-要么变人,要么变计划!!
此时,作为PM的我们,就更要学习塔可曼(Tuckman)阶梯理论。
-原汁原味原文如下:
Tuckman suggested groups transition through five stages of development, starting from the time the group first meets until project completion. As members of the team become familiar with each other, the team itself becomes more mature as relationships become established. During the developmental phase, the leader of the group also adopts a new leadership style. Tuckman’s stages of group development were developed by psychologist Bruce Tuckman in 1965. Tuckman’s stages of group development is a concise and elegant framework for team development and behavior.

Forming – during the first stage, individual team members are introduced to each other. The atmosphere is formal and polite, but most members are excited to begin work and get to know their new colleagues. Personal skills, background, and interests are discussed. So too are project goals, timelines, ground rules, and individual roles. Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase.
Storming – in the storming stage, the realities of having to complete the task are beginning to sink in. Excitement is replaced with frustration and anger, which causes some personalities to clash. At this point, the team can either become frustrated with the flaws of others or choose to accept them. If team members are not collaborative or open to differing ideas and perspectives, the environment can become counterproductive.
Norming – here, team members start to notice and appreciate the unique strengths of their colleagues. In this phase, team members begin to work together and adjust their work habits and behaviors to support the team. The team members learn to trust each other.
Performing – Members are satisfied with the team’s process toward a goal. They feel confident in their abilities and also in the abilities of colleagues. Roles and responsibilities may also become more fluid as help is provided to those who need it. They are independent and work through issues smoothly and effectively.
Adjourning – once the goal has been achieved, the team recognizes individual contributions and then disbands. This is sometimes called the mourning stage because members feel a sense of loss after separating from those they’ve shared a meaningful experience with. Any lessons learned from the process should be passed to a responsible person for use by future teams. This typically occurs when staff from the project as deliverables are completed or as part of the Close Project or Phase Process.
-蹩脚的译文如下:
塔可曼建议项目团队从开始建立到项目收尾期间,应该经过5个阶段。随着团队成员彼此熟悉,建立起关系后,团队才会变得成熟。在团队发展阶段期间,团队的领导也采用一种新的领导风格。塔可曼团队发展模型是由心理学家布鲁斯·塔克曼在1965年提出的。塔可曼(Tuckman)团队发展模型是一个简洁而优雅的团队发展和行为框架。

形成阶段——团队成员互相介绍。团队氛围是正式和礼貌的,但大多数成员都很兴奋想开始工作并了解他们的新同事。互相间讨论个人技能、背景和兴趣。同时也讨论项目目标、时间表、基本规则和个人职责。在这个阶段,团队成员往往是独立的,而不是开放的。
震荡阶段——在震荡阶段,大家都意识到必须要完成任务。但是,大家更多是沮丧和愤怒而不是兴奋, 并导致个性上的冲突。此时,要么对其他人的缺陷感到沮丧,要么选择接受它们。如果团队成员不合作或不接受不同的想法和观点,此时的团队氛围是不利于产出的。
规范阶段——团队成员开始注意并欣赏他们同事的独特优势。在这个阶段,团队成员开始一起工作,调整他们的工作习惯和行为来支持团队。团队成员开始学会互相信任。
成熟阶段——成员们对团队实现目标的过程感到满意。他们对自己的能力和同事的能力都很有信心。提供适当帮助后,团队成员的角色和责任也可能变得更加灵活。他们是独立的,能够顺利有效地解决问题。
解散阶段——一旦达成项目目标,团队认可个人的贡献后就开始解散团队。这有时也被称为哀悼阶段,因为团队成员们与那些曾经一起共事的人分离后会有一种失落感。从项目过程中获得的任何经验教训都应该传递给下个接手项目的团队负责人。这通常发生在可交付成果完成,或者阶段性项目完成,或者项目阶段过程完成时。


有了理论基础后,那现在就回到“项目期间换了新成员怎么办?”的问题。

项目期间被换了成员,我们就基本上处于形成阶段-此时作为PM肯定要介绍项目成员之间相互认识。但是在这期间,PM还要介入进去协助原团队成员进行交接,分享项目最新状态,尽最大努力让新成员可以快速融入团队,踏过这个阶段。根据个人经验,此阶段的团队效率可能只有之前的40%-50%,甚至遇见一个“好成员”,还会更低……

接下来,还要让团队成员继续快速跑完震荡阶段,此时的效率基本上在50%-70%左右;
以下是团队处在不同阶段的效率汇总,供大家参考。
1.      形成阶段,40%~50%
2.      震荡阶段,50%~70%
3.      规范阶段,70%~85%
4.      成熟阶段,85%~90%
最后,让我们回到前文的案例:让我们抛出Tuckman model,大胆说一声:“既然要让我的项目团队从成熟阶段回到形成阶段,那我就要按照经验的效率,重新计算schedule and project duration,请答应我-“要么变人,要么变计划!!”的要求!!

原文链接: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=Mzg2NzcyOTQ3OQ==&mid=2247483973&idx=1&sn=03b360f773d5b2d49121c3edddd0cecf&chksm=ceb66b6df9c1e27b31108392b519bb0cbf9e7cbfebae98780cbf39502aafadba5b74e131f459#rd